Moonje had sent Hedgewar to Calcutta to pursue his medical studies and to learn terrorist techniques from the Bengali secret societies. Hedgewar became a member of the Anushilan Samitian anti-British revolutionary group, getting into its inner circle. The secretive methods of these societies were eventually used by him in organising the RSS. According to the official RSS history,  he came to realize that revolutionary activities alone were not enough to overthrow the British.
With logic typical of the NAACP's approach to fighting segregation counterbalanced by colorful phrasing and a strain of passion, Pickens anticipated many of the arguments African Americans in the coming decades would use to fight segregation. He attacked so-called separate but equal accommodations as "a mere legal fiction," scoffed at laws banning interracial marriage, and detailed segregation's potentially unhealthy effects on the black psyche.
Pickens devoted much of his energy to this final point. Under the weight of segregation, light-skinned African Americans slipped under the color line to pass as white; African American children developed inferiority complexes they retained as adults; and the African American community splintered, internalizing the racism that kept segregation in place.
To Pickens, segregation truly was subjugation. How could African Americans escape this subjugation? Born in Jamaica, Garvey combined his international perspective with black nationalism, the belief in the need for African American political, economic, and social autonomy.
His message of independence and pride appealed to African Americans frustrated by the unmet promises of World War I. In the piece offered here, Garvey addresses white America, describing his desire to maintain "racial purity" by creating independent countries for people of African ancestry.
If white Americans don't help, they're in for some trouble. Garvey threatens "riots, lynching, and mob rule,"—or worse, a black president—if the groups like the NAACP achieve their program of social equality. Statements like this show how Garvey's unique brand of black nationalism put him at odds with other black leaders of the time.
He scoffed at the core idea of the growing civil rights movement—that with some convincing, white Americans would change their laws and minds to permit African Americans to live among them as equals.
David Van Leeuwen's article, "Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association" offers a convenient overview of Garvey's movement along with advice on how to teach it. Van Leeuwen notes important similarities between Garvey's message and that of Malcolm X.
Discussion questions What is the difference between segregation and separation? What effects does segregation have on the black community? What does Pickens's article suggest about segregation's effect on the white psyche?
According to Pickens, why can't separate institutions be equal? What is the "Negro problem," according to Garvey?
Compare Garvey's beliefs about social equality with those of Booker T.
Why did Garvey seek the support of white Americans? How do we make sense of Garvey's talk of "the brotherhood of man" and his efforts to create a separate black territory?
What might the United States be like had Garvey's vision of race relations been widely accepted? How do we reconcile Pickens's argument that the race problem is the greatest where segregation is the greatest with Garvey's argument that the race problem is a consequence of integration?BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
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