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Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust Though external to the Jewish tradition, the phenomenon of anti-Semitism is central to the Jewish experience. With the rise of Christianity—first an offshoot of Judaism, then a more formal competitor in the Roman world—anti-Jewish hostility was given strength through some interpretations of New Testament writings, including the Gospels of John and Matthew in John Such writings, although unique to their own context, authorship, and socio-political perspective, would lay the foundation for centuries of negative stereotyping.
The image of the Jew as a traitorous sinner and killer of Christ was later embellished with ethnocentric and racist accusations of Jewish economic exploitation, well-poisoning, child-killing, sexual depredation, conspiring for world domination, and other baseless claims.
The equating of Jews with evil practices continued through the European Enlightenment and the post-Emancipation period. In response to the civil equality granted the Jews, anti-Jewish reactionaries questioned the wisdom of opening the doors of society to such a non-assimilated community; they accused the Jews of disloyalty and of creating a state within the state.
Toward the end of the century, a new political movement gave an extreme answer: The movement reached a climax at the end of the nineteenth century with the Dreyfus Affair in France, an incident in which a French Jewish military captain was framed for espionage, and the publication of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a Russian forgery circulated as the minutes of a meeting in which Jews conspired to take over the world.
Though anti-Semitic fervor declined for a time at the beginning of the twentieth century, anti-Semitism would soon return with greater force. The defeat of Germany in World War I and resulting submission at Versailles created a degraded German economy and struggling society.
Anti-Semites in Germany soon began to lay the weight of these plights at the feet of the German Jewish community. Throughout their history, Jews had suffered periodic persecutions, expulsions, and even massacres, but nothing could prepare them for the Nazi onslaught. During the s the new German regime enacted a series of debilitating anti-Jewish laws, essentially revoking the European emancipation of the previous century.
In the end, over six million Jews were killed, roughly two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe or one out of every three Jews in the world. In Poland and Lithuania, where centuries of Jewish life and culture came to an abrupt end, 90 percent of the Jewish community was killed.
While many economic, social, and political factors influenced the rise of the Nazi party and the widespread genocide of the Holocaust, European anti-Semitism played a key role.
Jews today continue to live with anti-Semitism and the Holocaust, which has reached a central place in Jewish history and belief.
Historians of Judaism and European history have written countless texts and arguments interpreting the Holocaust. Jewish community leaders and politicians are vigilant in fighting contemporary manifestations of anti-Semitism, so that such a cataclysm will never happen again.
Even non-Jewish social activists apply the lessons of the Holocaust to other cases of inhumanity in the world today. And countless Jewish homes and synagogues balance remembrance of the Holocaust with the joy and celebration of building a renewed spiritual life around the rich customs and traditions of the Jewish community.Bridging the gap between pre-war "classical" analysis and the post-war development in Marxist analysis of Nazism and the Holocaust in the West (again: With exception of Yugoslavia, existing socialism largely embraced Dimitrov basically until the late 80s, early 90s), are the works of Franz Neumann, especially his book Behemoth ( and ).
Neumann, a German socialist, pioneered in essence the . RE-VISION: A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF CHANGE IN THE HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL CENTER Ramona L. Dunckel A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate College of Bowling Green. The holocaust has been called the most terrible catastrophe in world history.
Another word for Holocaust is the Shoah, a Hebrew word meaning "a whirlwind of destruction". The Holocaust was the mass murder of six million Jewish people during World War Two. fantasy and humor in literary responses to catastrophe. Required Texts Lawrence Langer, ed.
Art from the Ashes Introduction – The Shaping of Collective Memory Dan Pagis, poems. In Langer, pp. Interview children’s librarians on juvenile literature and the Holocaust. 6 4. Read and review additional literary texts, especially.
Catastrophe and Meaning: The Holocaust and the Twentieth Century (review) Stephen Feinstein Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, Volume 24, Number. Analysis of the Holocaust.
Of all the examples of injustice against humanity in history, the Jewish Holocaust has to be one of the most promtinen In the period of to , the Nazis waged a vicious war against Jews and other "lesser races".
This war came to a head with the "Final Solution" in